Friday, 12 July 2013

Geographic information

Area total area: 1,099.60 km2 (424.56 sq mi) urban area: 298.99 km2 (115.44 sq mi) (27.19%) metropolitan area (east): 45.04 km2 (17.39 sq mi) (4.09%) metropolitan area (north): 81.18 km2 (31.34 sq mi) (7.38%) rural: 673.39 km2 (260.00 sq mi) (61.23%) Borders Northern Border: Camanducaia, Sapucaí Mirim in Minas Gerais Southern Border: Jacareí, Jambeiro in São Paulo State Eastern Border: Monteiro Lobato, Caçapava in São Paulo State Western border: Igaratá, Joanópolis, Piracaia in São Paulo State Cityscape

The municipality is comprised by three districts: São José dos Campos — the city itself, (also the seat), Eugênio de Melo and São Francisco Xavier. The last one is known for its natural sites and ecotourism.

The district of São José dos Campos is also subdivided into 2 subdistricts (São José dos Campos and Santana do Paraíba).

However, for administrative purposes, the city is composed of 7 urban regions: Center, North, South, West, East, Southeast and São Francisco Xavier.


The climate is humid and subtropical, with the dry season in winter. The greatest precipitation occurs from November to March, contributing to 72% of the annual volume.

The annual average relative humidity is 76%. Tropical air masses predominate during 50% of the year and colder air masses predominate for the rest of the year

In the summer, the average maximum temperature is 29 °C (84 °F) and in the winter, the average minimum temperature is 10 °C (50 °F). The average annual temperature is 20 °C (68 °F).

Köppen climate classification: Cwa


Highlands predominate in the north region of the municipality, whose altitudes range from 660 to 975 m (2,170 to 3,199 ft). They are called Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira Range). There are also peaks and mountains that can reach up to 2,420.7 m (7,942 ft) (Pico dos Marins - Piquete - SP, Brazil) where the weather reaches −12 °C (10 °F).

In the urban area, there are rolling plateaus and hills.

In the south, the ridges of Serra do Mar form the boundary between the coastal plain and the inland plateau (planalto), which has an altitude of 400 to 500 m (1,300 to 1,600 ft).

Municipality: Elevations 550 to 2,082 m (1,800 to 6,831 ft) City: Elevations 550 to 690 m (1,800 to 2,260 ft), average of 660 m (2,170 ft) Hydrology

The municipality is located in the Hydrological Basin of the Paraíba do Sul River that crosses the city longitudinally and names the region as Paraíba Valley. The river has larger tributaries on the left bank than the right. However, on the right banks, the Jaguari River, Buquira River,and other tributaries are an important part of the city's drainage system. Some of these other creeks are the Comprido River, the Pararangaba River and the Lambari River.

For the water supply of the population and livestock, the Rio do Peixe, tributary of the Jaguari River, stands out. It drains the north portion of the municipality and its waters contribute significantly to the Jaguari Dam, which forms an important reservoir used by CESP for electricity generation.

Along with the mountainous topography, there are a great number of fluvial elements, such as waterfalls.

The quality of the water is excellent, and the artesian wells of the region possess average outflow of 30m³/hour.


The beginning

The origins of São José dos Campos lie at the end of the 16th Century when Jesuits founded a cattle farm, Aldeia do Rio Comprido. The farm was created through a concession of settlements around 1590 to the Society of Jesus. The farm was located on the banks of the Rio Comprido, natural division between São José and the city of Jacareí today.

Historical populations Census year Population 1940 36,279 1950 44,804 1960 77,533 1970 148,332 1980 287,513 1991 442,370 2000 539,313 2002 est. 559,710 2004 est. 589,050 2005 est. 600,089 2006 est. 610,965 2011 (IBGE) 636,876

The farm status was an artifice to hide a religious outpost, one of the several Jesuit Reductions in Brazil, known for their resistance to enslavement, from the Portuguese expedition leaders and indigenous people hunters, known as the Bandeirantes.

On September 10, 1611, the local was officially recognized and the farmers precluded from utilizing the Natives as slaves. However, a turmeric conflict between farmers and the religious led to the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1640 from the region and the consequent dispersion of the mission.

Nevertheless, the Jesuits returned and reestablished a new settlement, where the current city center is spotted. It was about 15 km (9.3 mi) northeast of the previous mission, on a higher plain with a privileged view above a geological depression, which guaranteed security against invasions and floods. Again, despite being a new mission, it was officially treated as a cattle farm.

The initial urbanization plan is attributed to the Jesuit priest Manoel de Leão, whose main occupation was really to be an administrator of the community.

In 1692, documents named the village as Residência do Paraíba do Sul; in 1696 as Residência de São José.

At the beginning of the gold mining economic cycle in Brazil, the settlement goes through serious difficulties due to the exit of labor to the mines.

After the definitive expulsion of Jesuits from the Portuguese Empire in 1759, all the religious order's assets, such as farms, colleges and villages were taken under the Portuguese Crown's custody. The governor, D. Luis Antonio Botelho Mourão, had as a priority to turn these new assets into productive units and increase tax collection. For that, Boutelho Mourão successfully requested authorization from the Viceroy to create civil parishes, known as freguesias, and to change the fiscal status of villages to the category of Vila (town).

Then, on July 27, 1767, São José reached the official status of town, with a hall and a pillory, passing over the status of civil parish; and the name Vila de São José do Paraíba was formalized. But for many years it maintained the same rural characteristics. The main difficulty was the fact that the Estrada Real (Royal Road) passed by its limits, far from the village.

Cotton and coffee

In the middle of the 19th century, the village of São José do Paraíba had demonstrated some signs of economic growth through the development of agriculture. Cotton production evolved rapidly in the region, exported to the English textile industry. The production reached a peak in 1864.

In the same year, on April 22, the town became the seat of a municipality, acquiring finally, in 1871, the current name of São José dos Campos, followed by the creation of a judiciary district in 1872. Almost simultaneously, there was development of coffee crops in Paraíba Valley, which started to take off in 1870.

In 1886, after the opening of the Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil railway (1877), the coffee production peaked. Then started to decay, running steady until the 1930s.

Hydro-mineral retreat and industrialization

Former sanatoria (date of opening/beds):

The call for the municipality of São José dos Campos for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis by sanatoriums became noticed at the beginning of last century, due to its supposedly favorable climate conditions. The city became to be known as the Sanatorium City. The country’s then largest hospital, the Vicentina Aranha Sanitarium, was opened in town in 1924, and in 1935 the municipality was officially recognized as a health retreat.

With the advent of antibiotics in the 1940s, tuberculosis begins to be treated anywhere, thus ending the healthcare advantage carried out by São José, whereas the establishment of industries was about just to start.

The industrialization process of the municipality takes hold from the installation of the Technological Institute of Aeronautics in 1950 and also with the opening of the Dutra Highway (BR-116), thus making possible a faster connection between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and cutting into the urban area of São José dos Campos. Altogether, these factors allowed the municipality to make strides towards fulfilling its scientific and technological potential.


Demographic Statistics

The built up regions of São José dos Campos and the neighboring city of Jacareí have merged in the last two decades. The estimated population of both cities is 841,000 inhabitants.

The large population growth that occurred in the city was a result of continuous migration from other regions of the country. As a consequence, in 1991, people that were born in São José dos Campos represented only 47% of population (according to IBGE). According to a new research from Univap, this number increased to 49.83% in 2004.

In the city, the population (according to census 2000) was spread out with:

24.2% under the age of 14 20.1% from 15 to 24 47.4% from 25 to 59 8.2% who were 60 years of age or older.

The city's ethnic composition (according to census 2010) is 72.61% whites; 21.4% brown; 4.48% blacks; 1.44% Asian; 0.08% amerindian.


São José dos Campos has a "strong mayoral" system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers, as it is in all municipalities in Brazil. The mayor is elected to a four-year term by universal voting. The City Council is elected every four years with the mayor. The current mayor is Eduardo Cury, from the political party PSDB and was reelected in 2008.

Address of local government

Rua José de Alencar 123, Jd. Santa Luzia Cep 12209-530 São José dos Campos - SP - Brazil The state administrative region of São José dos Campos

The State of São Paulo is divided politically and administratively into 15 regions. São José dos Campos is the seat and the name of the 3rd Administrative Region, which includes the North Coast of São Paulo state and the Paraíba Valley. The region comprises 39 municipalities with sharp contrasts. São José dos Campos is a densely populated city, with approximately 2,100 inhabitants/square kilometers in urban area, whereas the quiet municipality of São José do Barreiro has only 7 inhabitants/square kilometer. There are both highly industrialized cities and the others in the region are focused on agriculture and tourism. São José dos Campos is well known as the Capital do Vale which means that São José dos Campos is the most important city of the Paraíba Valley.

It is one of the state's most dynamic areas, the fourth one in terms of population density, and covers 11.3% of the state's territory. The main municipalities are São José dos Campos, Taubaté, Jacareí, Guaratingueta, Caraguatatuba, Campos do Jordão, São Sebastião, Lorena, Pindamonhangaba, Ubatuba and Caçapava.

Population of the region: 2,243,687 (est. 2006/IBGE) Population Density: 288.56 inhabitants per square kilometer Important mayors João Cursino (1908/1910, 1913/1916, 1919/1930) Rui Dória (1931) Francisco José Longo (1938/1941) Elmano Ferreira Veloso (1949/1950, 1953/1956, 1958/1961, 1966/1970) Jorge Zarur (1947 and 1950) José Marcondes Pereira (1962/1966) Sérgio Sobral de Oliveira (1970/1975) Ednardo José de Paula Santos (1975/1978) Joaquim Vicente Ferreira Bevilacqua (1978/1982, 1989/1990) Hélio Augusto (1986) Ângela Guadagnin (1993/1996) Emanuel Fernandes (1997/2000, 2001/2004)

Shopping areas

Tourists and locals find complete and diversified shopping areas in São José dos Campos. All the major hypermarkets, supermarket chains and discount and department stores are in city. The largest malls are:

CenterVale Shopping; Shopping Colinas; Vale Sul Shopping; Shopping Center São José.

Besides those malls, the most important commercial centers include:

The Old Downtown area including: Rua Sete de Setembro - Calçadão - a popular street shopping area. Rua XV de Novembro - located in Praça Afonso Pena, the town square. This street was the main street in São José dos Campos in the 1950s and 1960s. On the weekends, handcraft exhibitions are held there and in other squares. Other streets: Rua Rubião Júnior, Rua Vilaça, Rua Siqueira Campos and Rua Sebastião Hummel. the Municipal Market (popular groceries, stores);

And newer areas such as:

Avenida Francisco José Longo and Avenida Nelson D´Ávila (hotels and maintenance services); Avenida Nove de Julho (fashionable boutiques and restaurants) Rua Luis Jacinto (nightclubs and restaurants); Rua São João (with a small mall with exquisite boutiques called Shopping Esplanada, as well as restaurants and schools); Avenida Adhemar de Barros, where there are schools and the Santos-Dumont Park.

The Vila Ema district has the most interesting sites for nightlife including bars and restaurants.

Business, tourism and interesting sites

The city is an important business center that attracts thousands of visitors. Several fairs and expositions are done at the 2 pavilions located in the city.

The occupancy rates of the hotels are high throughout the year. A diversity of hotels are offered including Accor Hotels (Ibis São José, Ibis Colinas, Mercury, Novotel and Space Valley Parthernon Flat), Caesar Business, Blue Tree Towers, Shelton Inn, Urupema, Carlton Plaza, Intervale Othon, Comfort Inn and Di Giulio. The following sites attract visitors:

Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve Banhado Burle Marx Municipal Park with the Olivo Gomes residence CTA and MAB (Brazilian Aerospace Memorial) Embraer Espaço Mário Covas (former City Council seat) INPE - (National Institute for Space Research) Old Cathedral Medieval Village Municipal Market Municipal Public Library (former Theatro São José) Nossa Senhora Aparecida Chapel São Francisco Xavier São Benedito Church Sanatorium Vicentina Aranha Santos Dumont Park (total area: 46.347 m²)

Heritage and culture

In 1985, the municipality established the Cassiano Ricardo Cultural Foundation, named after the Brazilian poet. It aims to promote and sponsor cultural activities and events, spreading and extending knowledge among the population. Furthermore, the public foundation stimulates creation and emerging of new artists in different sectors. The foundation was also charged with the preservation and expansion of the Municipal Public Archives and to provide support to the Municipal Historic Preservation Council (COMPHAC). Several cultural centers are maintained by the foundation including Cine Santana, Centro Cultural Clemente Gomes, Espaço Cultural Chico Triste, Helena Calil Arts Center and Espaço Cultural Mário Covas

The São José dos Campos Symphony Orchestra, fomented by Cassiano Ricardo Cultural Foundation, is an already respected orchestra in the country. The city also houses important choirs (such as Libercanto, Vocalis, Vozes and ITA), with popular and eclectic performances.

São José is an important center for dance. It is the headquarters for several dance schools (Cristina Cará, Ana Araújo, Rosilene Sánchez, Damares Antelmo), that already have taken part in several international contests. Jazz, step dance, ballet, techno, aerobic, among other dance forms, are presented to the public in December every year at municipal competitions. The Cassiano Ricardo Foundation is also starting a dance company.

Popular parties are also important events. Perhaps the most distinguished is the so-called Festa Junina (Saint John's Festival). It is mainly celebrated on key days following the Catholic feast days of Saint Anthony, John the Baptist and Saint Peter. It happens at different churches, schools and parks in June.

The Sports Museum was opened on July 30, 1999. In exhibition are trophies, medals, photos and newspapers about the history of sports of São José dos Campos since 1910.

City Anniversary Run - a 12 kilometer run taking place on the streets of the city center in the morning, with hundreds of athletes from the city and from the Vale do Paraíba region on July 27.

Relevant people Aline Nakashima Antoninho da Rocha Marmo Cassiano Ricardo Euclides Bueno Miragaia Geovanna Tominaga Fabíola Molina Nelson D'Ávila Ozires Silva Rudolf Komorek Roque Júnior Rui Dória Sister city Kadoma, Osaka

A Japanese garden is open for visits within the Santos-Dumont Park, celebrating the sister cities.

There is also cooperation with:

Toulouse, France.